Pakistan has been using Special Forces to train irregulars to wage a well planned proxy war in Kashmir for decades. Pakistan’s surrogates operating in J&K were equipped with high-calibre, sophisticated weapons and remote controlled devices, giving them the capability to attack security forces operating in the Valley, including the army. They gradually developed ways and means to draw the army in a long-drawn low-intensity conflict.
Sponsored terrorism, along with subversion, has assumed the shape of a hybrid conflict in the last two decades. Alienation of people from the mainstream reached a new height
after 2014, when Pakistan mobilised mosques and other Kashmiri religious tanzeems and their cadres to propagate radical Islam in the Valley. Their network grew rapidly and soon established firm links between the domestic religious groups and their sponsors in Pakistan on both sides of the Line of Control.
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