Celebrating 25 Years of ASEAN-IndiaPartnership: What Makes It So Unique?

  1. Introduction

ASEAN and India have a rich history of maritime trade and ancient cultural linkages. Maritime relations between India and Southeast Asia date back to ancient times. India’s trade from ports such as Lothal, its coastal temples at Mahabalipuram and ancient links with My Son in Vietnam show the strength of its ties with ASEAN1. The process of acculturation of India and Southeast Asia began in ancient times from the 3rd century onwards. The exchanges via trade, the influence of Sanskrit and Indian epics in Southeast Asia are well documented2. Indian culture is an inseparable part of Southeast Asia’s customs.

In early 1990s, if one were looking around the world to find the most promising region for international cooperation, ASEAN certainly appeared at the top of the list. In 1992, India joined ASEAN as a sectoral partner, at a time when India was relatively an inward-looking economy. India started its journey to prosperity through Look East Policy (LEP). This journey has been quite well-thought since ASEAN-India relations are firmly embedded in economic, culture and strategic areas. Today’s LEP, which was in force for more than two decades, has been transformed into the Act East Policy (AEP) with ASEAN at its core. Starting as a sectoral partner of ASEAN in 1992, India became a dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1996, a summit-level partner in 2002 and a strategic partner in 2012. The ASEAN-India relations have gained constant momentum throughout this period. Undoubtedly, ASEAN and India have made impressive progress in the last 25 years to deepen their relations3.

ASEAN is more important than ever and so also India to ASEAN4. Both share land and maritime boundaries with each other. As India gained momentum, India and ASEAN became more closely interconnected. At present, India and ASEAN are home to 1.8 billion people and have an economic size of US$ 3.8 trillion and a substantial share of world resources. In three decades, webs of networks developed in different areas of cooperation, from commerce to culture to connectivity, between ASEAN and India. India is strategic partner of ASEAN. Both have strong strategic vision and complement each other regionally and globally. India’s accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) in October 2003 reflects the recognition of India by ASEAN as a major player in the region and the strong commitment and valuable contribution India is making to regional peace and stability.

This paper briefly presents major develop-ments occurred in last 25 years of ASEAN-India partnership and a list of recommendations as way forward.


 

  1. Current Engagements

Overtime, the landscape of ASEAN-India relations has widened. Economic, strategic and cultural relations between ASEAN and India are deep rooted. India’s participation in ADMM+, EAS, ARF, MGC, ACD and RCEP are part of this process. Today, there are 30 dialogue mechanisms between India and ASEAN, including a Summit and seven Ministerial meetings in a wide range of sectors such as Foreign Affairs, Commerce, Tourism, Agriculture, Environment, Renewable Energy and Telecommunications. In the last two years, President, Vice President and the Prime Minister of India visited all the ASEAN countries which indicate the importance India attaches to ASEAN.

Table 1: Present Scenario of ASEAN-India Engagements

ASEAN-India FTA ·  Completed with the Services and Investment agreement in 2015 · Bilateral trade: US$  71 billion in 2016-17 (India’s export to ASEAN US$ 30 billion, India’s import from ASEAN US$ 41 billion)

· Growing value chains, but slowly

· Rising trade deficit is a matter of concern

· Low utilization of FTA

RCEP ·  Being negotiated · Till November 2017, total 20 rounds of RCEP negotiation were held.
Trade facilitation ·  Unilateral initiatives

·  WTO TFA

· ASEAN single window under implementation and India’s SWIFT working already
ASEAN-India maritime transport agreement •Being negotiated •Target date of signing of agreement - 2018
ASEAN-India air
transport agreement
•Proposed ·         High imbalance between carriers; major ASEAN airlines (e.g. SQ or TG) utilise 100% slots

·         Ministry of Civil Aviation is planning to host the 1st meeting of the JWG in early 2018

Land transport •Trilateral Highway & extension to CLV
•Kaladan MMTTP
•Ongoing
Digital network ·  Optical fibre network between India and ASEAN · Being negotiated

Source: Author’s own

 

Table 1 presents the current scenario of engagement of ASEAN-India relations. Economic ties between India and ASEAN are deepening day by day. In 2016, ASEAN was India's 4th largest trading partner, accounting for 10 percent of India’s total trade. In the same year, India was ASEAN's 7th largest trading partner. When India undertook LEP in 1992, India’s total trade with ASEAN was less than US$ 5 billion. Today, total trade between them has exceeded US$ 70 billion.

Barring the Philippines, India has completed the task of tariff liberalisation under this Agreement in December 2016. Investment flows between them have been growing constantly with more inward FDI coming for ‘Make-in-India’. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in goods, implemented in 2010, and the services trade and investment agreement in 2015 between ASEAN and India represent an important effort to enhance ASEAN-India integration. India has also signed bilateral CEPAs/CECAs with Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, along with a regional FTA with ASEAN. India is a partner of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which is a comprehensive free trade agreement being negotiated between the 10 ASEAN members and ASEAN’s FTA partners, i.e., Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand. ASEAN India-Business Council (AIBC), set up in March 2003, has been entrusted to bring key private sector players from India and the ASEAN countries on a single platform for business networking and sharing of ideas.

2.1 Trade relations

India's export to ASEAN has increased to US$ 30 billion in 2016-17 from US$ 25 billion in 2015-16 (Table 2). India's import from ASEAN is very important elements to growing value chains. Driven by rising and favourable commodity prices, India's trade with ASEAN has increased to US$ 70 billion in 2016-17 from US$ 65 in 2015-16.

 

Table 2: Trends in India-ASEAN Trade in Goods

Year Indian Export to ASEAN Indian Import from ASEAN Total Trade
(US$ billion)
2009-10 18.11 25.80 43.91
2010-11 25.63 30.61 56.24
2011-12 36.74 42.16 78.90
2012-13 33.01 42.87 75.87
2013-14 33.13 41.28 74.41
2014-15 31.81 44.71 76.53
2015-16 25.15 39.91 65.06
2016-17(P) 30.12 40.69 70.81

Note: P: Data for March 2017 is provisional

Sources: Authors own based on Export-Import Databank, Department of Commerce, Government of India and DGCIS, Kolkata

 


 

Table 3: India’s Trade with ASEAN in 2016-17*

S.No. Country Export Import Total
(US$ billion)
1 Brunei 0.04 0.57 0.61
2 Cambodia 0.11 0.04 0.15
3 Indonesia 3.31 13.87 17.18
4 Lao PDR 0.03 0.17 0.20
5 Malaysia 5.22 8.72 13.94
6 Myanmar 1.10 1.00 2.10
7 Philippines 1.52 0.57 2.10
8 Singapore 9.11 7.44 16.55
9 Thailand 3.17 5.61 8.79
10 Vietnam 6.51 2.69 9.20
ASEAN Total 30.12 40.69 70.81

Note: *Data for March 2017 is provisional

Sources: Authors own based on Export-Import Databank, Department of Commerce, Government of India and DGCIS, Kolkata

 

Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore are India’s top three trade partners in ASEAN (Table 3). India’s exports to Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Vietnam witnessed higher than average growth. However, traditional import sources are yet to stabilize. India is gaining production linkages with Malaysia (e.g. electronics), Thailand (e.g. automobiles), Singapore (e.g. digital networks), etc. in ASEAN.

 

  1. Regional Value Chains

 

Illustrated in Table 4, parts and components have contributed almost 25 per cent (US$ 6.27 billion) of India’s export to ASEAN in 2014, followed by 18 per cent (US$ 4.60 billion) to EU, 14 per cent (US$ 3.49 billion) to USA and 7.7 per cent (US$ 1.95 billion) to China. In terms of import of parts and components, India has imported 15 per cent (US$ 5.48 billion) from ASEAN, 25 per cent (US$ 9.39 billion) from China and 18 per cent (US$ 6.81 billion) from Japan in 2014 (Table 5). Overall, India’s export of final, parts and components, and processed goods to ASEAN was about 20 to 30 per cent of India’s total export to world, whereas, India’s import from ASEAN was roughly about 15 per cent in 2014. This shows that India is getting more engaged in production networks with ASEAN countries in both export and import of parts and components and processed goods[i]. Among ASEAN countries, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam are India’s major import sources of parts and components.

 

Table 4: India’s Export to Major Countries and Country Groups

Export Value (US$ Billion) Export Share in World (%)
Final Goods Parts and Components Processed Goods Final Parts and Components Processed Goods
2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014
USA 4.03 6.51 1.80 3.49 4.27 9.17 25.50 15.39 15.56 13.76 15.44 13.37
EU 3.34 6.67 2.05 4.60 5.98 11.87 7.78 4.26 7.12 7.70 9.23 12.40
Japan 1.99 2.67 1.78 2.13 2.04 3.88 21.11 15.77 17.75 18.15 21.61 17.30
South Asia 0.44 1.52 0.38 1.10 1.88 5.57 12.59 6.31 15.45 8.42 7.38 5.66
China 1.23 1.80 0.82 1.95 2.55 8.51 2.78 3.58 3.25 4.35 6.79 8.11
ASEAN 2.75 6.80 3.64 6.27 5.23 11.76 17.42 16.07 31.49 24.75 18.91 17.15
World 15.80 42.31 11.55 25.33 27.67 68.61 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Note:Shaded columns represent the size of value chains. The selection of HS 6 digit level product is based on BEC.

Source:AIC’s calculations based on WITS Database, the World Bank.

 

Table 5: India’s Import from Major Countries and Country Groups

Import Value (US$ Billion) Import Share in World (%)
Final Goods Parts & Components Processed Goods Final Goods Parts & Components Processed Goods
2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014 2006 2014
USA 1.39 2.20 1.70 2.82 2.25 5.39 9.27 6.31 11.62 7.73 6.37 6.02
EU 3.52 5.98 2.79 5.35 4.70 9.43 23.39 17.12 19.08 14.66 13.31 10.52
Japan 2.78 4.49 3.79 6.81 4.75 8.51 18.52 12.87 25.90 18.65 13.46 9.49
South Asia 0.10 0.33 0.05 0.25 0.83 1.60 0.64 0.95 0.35 0.67 2.37 1.78
China 2.98 12.92 1.71 9.39 4.60 17.16 19.82 37.00 11.72 25.72 13.03 19.15
ASEAN 2.05 5.61 2.92 5.48 4.67 10.83 13.62 16.05 19.96 15.01 13.22 12.09
World 15.04 34.93 14.63 36.51 35.29 89.63 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Note:Shaded columns represent the size of value chains. The selection of HS 6 digit level product is based on BEC.

Source:AIC’s calculations based on WITS Database, the World Bank.

 

Automobile industry is an emerging sector where ASEAN and India are building regional as well as global value chains. Among ASEAN countries, India’s export of automobile parts and components to Thailand was almost 41 per cent (US$ 282.10 million) in 2014. In case of import of parts and components of automobile products, India’s import was almost 71 per cent (US$ 720.49 million) from Thailand. In terms of value chain of automobile products, India has been maintaining closer ties with Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam among the ASEAN countries. Indian cars manufactured by Suzuki, Toyota, Honda, TATA, etc. are getting higher market access in Southeast and East Asia. Further negotiations in ASEAN-India FTA for the automobile products having high trade potential that fall under sensitive and exclusion lists would possibly strengthen the production networks between the ASEAN and India.

Indian textile and apparels have demand in both domestic and export markets.  India’s trade relation in textiles industry among ASEAN countries like Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand have been growing, among which India’s trade with Vietnam in textiles has been rapid. There are huge opportunities in textiles and apparel industry in Vietnam. Textiles and apparel industry in both India and Vietnam are more complementary than competing in nature. Both India and Vietnam have strong export market for textiles and garments, mostly to USA and EU. Both the countries have huge trade potential in textile industry to supplement and to grow in textiles value chains. Textile industry in India has specialized in complete value chain process of textile productions and also in value chain segments. Compared to Vietnam, India is raw material-sufficient, whereas Vietnam is dependent on import of raw materials from other countries, mostly China, for its textile inputs. India can be raw material supplier for manufacturing textiles products for Vietnam exports and also gain huge market in Vietnam garment business. Having huge trade potential for textile products, both ASEAN and India have to cooperate with each other for strengthening the trade and resolve the trade barriers such as Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs).

Better connectivity is the core factor for strengthening the production networks as several forward and backward linkages within and across the region have been taking place to supply intermediate parts to manufacturing units to produce finished goods. Both efficient time management (i.e., just in time) and low transportation cost would bring potential link for the value chains between India and Thailand. With the introduction of GST in India, Regional Value Chain (RVC) sectors are likely to grow as the market becomes more efficient.

  1. Physical and Digital Connectivity

Aiming to boost connectivity between ASEAN and India, connectivity projects such as the India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway (TH), extension of TH to Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam, and the Kaladan Multimodal Transit Transport Project (KMTTP) are at different stages of implementation. India is already working with Myanmar in the areas of border area development, capacity building, infrastructure development, connectivity projects, and institutional development. India, Myanmar and Thailand are already negotiating the Trilateral Motor Vehicles Agreement (MVA). The ASEAN-India Maritime Transport Cooperation Agreement is being negotiated. An ASEAN-India Civil Aviation Task Force has been established to oversee optimization of air connectivity. India has called the first meeting of the ASEAN-India Working Group on Regional Air Services Arrangement in January 20186. In addition, ASEAN and India have agreed to establish a Maritime Transport Working Group between India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam to examine the feasibility of shipping networks7. India is also working together for an early conclusion of the Agreement on Maritime Transport between ASEAN and India.

Digital connectivity is the high-speed catalyst to ASEAN and India partnership. In digital connectivity, ASEAN needs a comprehensive overhaul of both in-country and cross-border (regional) regulations, addressing both supply-side and demand-side objectives. On the supply side, countries within ASEAN should strive to strengthen the business case for investment in digital infrastructure, revisit regulations for key sectors (such as financial services), and boost the local digital ecosystem. On the demand side, ASEAN countries aim to create a Single Digital Market and take steps to aggressively expand access to broadband. Radical steps could open avenues toward boosting the ASEAN Digital economy with a clear focus on developing the ICT infrastructure. India has been setting up optical fibre network from India to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam (CLMV) countries, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. India’s offer of Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (GPON) technology has been welcomed by ASEAN. Telecom Export Promotion Council (TEPC) has been entrusted to implement the project. Nevertheless, the potential energy security remains to be explored.

To further encourage cooperation in connectivity, India has set-up Special Facility of US$ 1 billion to facilitate projects that support physical and digital connectivity between India and ASEAN. In addition, India has set-up a Project Development Fund of US$ 77 million to develop manufacturing hubs in CLMV countries. India has three major ASEAN-India Cooperation Funds, namely, ASEAN-India Fund, ASEAN-India S&T Development Fund, and ASEAN-India Green Fund.

Plan of Action (POA) for the period 2004-2010 was developed to implement the ASEAN-India Partnership. Most of the obligations of the 2nd POA (2010-15) have been implemented. The 3rd POA (2016-20) was adopted by the ASEAN-India Foreign Ministers Meeting held in August 2015. ASEAN and India have finalised a list of priority areas for the period of 2016-2018, which would contribute towards successful implementation of the 2016-2020 Plan of Action. Out of 130 activities identified in the 3rd Plan of Action, a set of 54 activities have been already implemented.

  1. People to People Contacts

To boost people-to-people contacts with ASEAN, India has been organising various programme including training programme for ASEAN diplomats, exchange of parliamentarians, participation of ASEAN students in the National Children’s Science Congress, ASEAN-India Network of Think Tanks, ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Lecture Series, etc. India is establishing four Centres of Excellence in Software Development & Training (CESDT) in CLMV countries, including the setting up of an IT Resource cum Study Centre at CDAC, Noida consisting of one existing Lab and one new Lab as well as the development of 12 e-learning courses in six identified areas. India has facilitated visit of ASEAN Musical Bands, ASEAN Youths, ASEAN Artists as part of 25 years of celebration.

To deal with such wide ranging activities, dedicated institutions are essentials. India has set-up a separate Mission to ASEAN in Jakarta in April 2015 and ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) in New Delhi in 2013 to help facilitate India’s engagements with ASEAN. To facilitate Track II dialogue, India has set-up the ASEAN Studies Centre (ASC) in Shillong in 2016, and conducted series of dialogues, seminars and conferences across the country. Delhi Dialogue (DD) is one of the flagship projects, which has gained popularity in both ASEAN and India. Besides, India has extended the e-visa facility to all ASEAN countries.

  1. Other Areas of Cooperation

India has been cooperating with ASEAN by way of implementation of various projects in the fields of Agriculture, Science & Technology, Space, Environment & Climate Change, Human Resource Development, Capacity Building, New and Renewable Energy, Tourism, People-to-People contacts and Connectivity etc. For example, Space Project envisaging establishment of a Tracking, Data Reception/Data Processing Station in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and upgradation of Telemetry Tracking and Command Station in Biak, Indonesia; Setting up of Centres of Excellence in Software Development & Training in CLMV countries are some of the major projects under implementation.

In the field of agriculture, India and ASEAN have projects such as Exchange of Farmers, ASEAN-India Fellowships for Higher Agricultural Education in India and ASEAN, Exchange of Agriculture Scientists, Empowerment of ASEAN-Indian Women through Cooperatives etc. In the S&T field, there are projects such as ASEAN-India Collaborative Project on S&T for Combating Malaria, ASEAN-India Programme on Quality Systems in Manufacturing, ASEAN-India Collaborative R&D Project on Mariculture, Bio-mining and Bioremediation Technologies, etc.

India has been supporting ASEAN specially CLMV countries under the Initiatives for ASEAN Integration, which include projects on Training of English Language for Law Enforcement Officers in CLMV countries and Training of professionals dealing with capital markets in CLMV by National Institute of Securities Management Mumbai.

In case of security, ASEAN countries also look to working closely with India in securing the trade routes, freedom of navigation in international waters, over flights, threat or use of force to intimidate, reducing piracy along the Malacca Straits, cooperating in addressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges, including in areas of de-radicalization, prevention of violent extremism and cyber crime. They also look to India’s support in dealing with natural disaster management. The Tsunami of 2005 made us all aware, how important and essential it was to work together when faced with natural disasters. India supports ASEAN’s efforts in handling disasters and risk reduction as envisioned in ASEAN Community Vision 2025 on Disaster Management and also support ASEAN in the realization of ASEAN Declaration on One ASEAN, One Response.

  1. Way Forward

There is immense importance of the human factor and cultural links in today’s contemporary discourse, where strategic ties and infrastructure and geopolitical formations have taken centre stage. Youth is needed to be engaged in this process of interaction between India and ASEAN countries in a more systematic way.

Safety of cultural heritage is related to national security and requires greater coordination and cooperation to end such transnational crimes between ASEAN and India.

ASEAN has redesigned the Master Plan on Connectivity (MPAC) 2025, which ASEAN leaders have adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Vientiane, Lao PDR in 2016. This master plan has updated design and strategy for connectivity improvement in ASEAN as well as Dialogue Partners such as India. The MPAC 2025, which succeeds the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity 2010, focuses on five strategic areas: sustainable infrastructure, digital innovation, seamless logistics, regulatory excellence and people mobility. We have to make a synergy with MPAC and design strong implementation mechanisms to ensure that effective coordination takes place among various agencies as well as with dialogue partners such as India. Such cooperation has the potential to absorb large investments in infrastructure and industry. India and ASEAN should improve physical and digital connectivity; develop industrial or special economic zones, logistics and customs systems, etc.

ASEAN and India shall aim for harmonisation of standards and mutual recognition, which would lead to encourage more trade and investment between the two partners. Harmonisation of standards will not only boost export competitiveness but will also improve the ease of doing business. ASEAN and India may consider setting up a mechanism for greater cooperation between the standards setting bodies of the two partners.

India may set up separate project monitoring cell of 3-4 members with necessary expertise and experience to follow on these projects with a clear mandate to ensure quality and timely execution.

ASEAN and India shall fast-track the digital connectivity projects. Connectivity with islands of the Philippines and Indonesia shall be considered in the ASEAN-India Connectivity Master Plan.

Thailand has also prepared Master Plan for CLMV countries. India can utilise the opportunity to be a part of Master Plan for CLMV countries. On the other, ASEAN shall also invest in connectivity projects being implemented in India at present. To guide designing of the ASEAN-India Connectivity Master Plan, ASEAN-India Connectivity Task Force may be constituted with participation of ASEAN HoMs.

Greater involvement of Northeast in India’s Act East Policy (AEP) is essential. Northeast India has the potential to build two gateways: one at Guwahati and another at Shillong. Infrastructure development in India’s Northeast should be our utmost priority. There is a great need to factor Northeast in ASEAN by making borders of the region vibrant, particularly in Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya and Assam, in terms of connectivity, infrastructure, investment, which in turn will make the region a hub for health, education and tourism.

  1. Concluding Remarks

India and ASEAN are becoming more economically integrated and there is ample scope for deepening this integration process. ASEAN and India shall continue to work closely to build or maintain strong working relations, converge towards connectivity development issues and to protect the global trading system on which both ASEAN and India so heavily depend. Time is ripe for India to continue strengthening economic partnership with ASEAN.

Given India’s diversity and geographical contrasts, an integrated transport network with Southeast Asia in particular is required to support the integration process. Stronger connectivity across India’s Northeastern Region will build a stronger network of cross-border production chains, particularly with Southeast Asia. To facilitate the production networks, free flow of investment and movement of skilled labourers across the region are must. Indian government under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi has taken up huge infrastructure development projects in Northeast India. India has remained committed to working closely with ASEAN with a view to bringing the ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership to new heights. A series of events have been organised throughout 2017-18 on the theme “Shared Values, Common Destiny”, and there will be many more in coming months.

Finally, ASEAN-India 25th year celebration will reach its culmination on the Republic Day of 26th January 2018, when all ASEAN Heads of the States will be the guests at the Republic Day 2018 and a special Commemorative Summit will be held at Delhi. The ASEAN-India relations have achieved much over the last 25 years. But its success has given rise to new challenges. It will continue to play a central role in promoting economic integration in Asia and the Pacific and inclusive development over the next 25 years.

References:-

1 Refer, Saran (2018), which presents a set of freshly written research articles on ASEAN-India civilizational links.

2  Refer, the Inaugural Address delivered by Prof. Lokesh Chandra, President, ICCR at the International Conference on “ASEAN-India Cultural Links: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions”, organised by ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) at New Delhi on July 23, 2015, available at Saran (2018)

3  Also read, External Affairs Minister’s speech delivered at RIS on 22 June 2017, http://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/28550/Keynote+Address+by+External+Affairs+Minister+on+ASEANIndia+Partnership

4   A series of studies were conducted on ASEAN-India relations in recent years. Refer, for example, De (2014a), De and Suthiphand (2017), AIC-RIS (2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b).

5 Refer, for example, AIC-RIS (2015a, 2017) for further discussion on RVCs between India and some of the ASEAN countries.

6  Based on author’s own communication with a senior officer of Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) on 15 December 2017.

7  Refer also De (2014b), AIC-RIS (2015a) and RIS (2012)

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2013) ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership: Perspectives from the ASEAN-India Network of Think-Tanks, AIC-RIS, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2014a) ASEAN-India Maritime Connectivity Report, AIC-RIS, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2014b) Dynamics of ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership, AIC-RIS, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2015a) ASEAN-India Economic Relations: Opportunities and Challenges, ASEAN-India Centre, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2015b) ASEAN – India Development and Cooperation Report 2015, Routledge, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2016) ASEAN-India Air Connectivity Report, AIC-RIS, New Delhi

ASEAN-India Centre (AIC) - Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2017) Mekong-Ganga Cooperation: Breaking Barriers and Scaling New Heights, AIC-RIS, New Delhi

De, Prabir (2014a) ASEAN-India: Deepening Economic Partnership in Mekong Region, Bookwell, New Delhi

De, Prabir (2014b)“India’s Emerging Connectivity with Southeast Asia: Progress and Prospects”, ADBI Working Paper # 507, Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), Tokyo

De, Prabir and Suthiphand Chirathivat (eds.) (2017) Celebrating the Third Decade and Beyond: New Challenges to ASEAN – India Economic Partnership, Knowledge World, New Delhi

Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) (2012) ASEAN-India Connectivity: India Country Study, RIS, New Delhi

Saran, Shyam (ed.) (2018) Cultural and Civilisational Links between India and Southeast Asia: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions, Palgrave Macmillan, Forthcoming

(Prof. Prabir De is a Professor at Research and Information System of Developing Countries (RIS) and

Coordinator, ASEAN-India Centre (AIC), RIS, New Delhi. Views are author’s own.)

 

(This article is carried in the print edition of January-February 2018 issue of India Foundation Journal.)

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