Articles and Commentaries |
April 16, 2024

A Decade of Reforms: The Evolution of Education and Skill Development

Written By: Swadesh Singh


The education sector plays a pivotal role in shaping the socio-economic development of a state. Historically, India had a knowledge system that not only ensured the effective transfer of a wholistic episteme from generation to generation but also its enhancement as per the requirements of age, nation, and society. A smooth transition of this tradition to the modern day was hampered by successive colonial interferences, leading to several glaring gaps in the modern education systems. Recognising the urgent need to plug these gaps, the Modi government has introduced several groundbreaking reforms aimed at enhancing the quality, accessibility, and skill orientation of education across India. This article examines the trajectory of these reforms over the past decade, highlighting their impact on primary and higher education, research, entrepreneurship, and skill development.

Changes in Primary and Secondary Education

The Modi government has implemented a range of initiatives to improve the quality and accessibility of primary and secondary education. Notably, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the government launched the PM eVidya channel to facilitate remote learning for school students. Furthermore, significant budgetary allocations have been made to enhance infrastructure, digital literacy, and teacher training programmes in schools across the country.

Initiatives in the primary and secondary education sectors reflect a commitment to driving transformational change in India’s educational landscape. By embracing digital technologies, enhancing infrastructure, investing in teacher training, and promoting inclusive education, these reforms are not merely incremental improvements but signify a fundamental shift towards a more equitable, accessible, and quality-driven education system.

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the government’s swift adoption of digital platforms, such as the PM eVidya channel, which targeted almost 25 crore school students across India, demonstrates a willingness to innovate and adapt to changing circumstances. This digital transformation not only ensures the continuity of education during crises but also opens up new avenues for learning and collaboration, transcending geographical boundaries and traditional constraints.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasised that the country’s education system persevered through the pandemic due to digital connectivity, underscoring that the government’s online-centric approach has led to a reduction in the digital gap.[i] The bridging of the digital divide had been promised by the BJP government in its 2014 manifesto. Moreover, the emphasis on infrastructure development in primary and secondary schools underscores a commitment to providing every child with a conducive learning environment. By investing in modern classrooms, laboratories, libraries, and sanitation facilities, the government is laying the foundation for holistic development and lifelong learning opportunities. Over the past decade, school enrolment has exhibited a consistent upward trend, with figures rising from 96.7% in 2014 to 98.4% in 2022. Notably, there has been a significant increase in female enrolment.

The proportion of girl students aged between 11 and 14 who are not enrolled in school decreased from 10% in 2006 to a mere 2% in 2022.[ii] During the question hour, while addressing supplementary queries from Members of Parliament, the Education Minister, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, highlighted a notable increase in enrolment rates among girls. He mentioned that there has been a remarkable 31% growth in enrolment among girls from 2014-15 to 2021-22. Additionally, he noted that the enrolment figures for girls belonging to Scheduled Castes (SC) showed a substantial growth of 50%. Moreover, Prime Minister Modi pointed out that the enrolment growth rates for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) students were significant, standing at 44% and 65%, respectively, over the same period. Among Muslim girls, there has been an increase of 45 percent in enrolment, he said.[iii]

Critical to the success of these reforms is the focus on teacher empowerment and capacity building. Through targeted training programmes and recruitment drives, the government is equipping educators with the skills and knowledge necessary to deliver high-quality instruction and foster student engagement. Empowered teachers serve as catalysts for change, nurturing the next generation of innovators, leaders, and change-makers. Upon assuming office, Prime Minister Modi demonstrated a clear vision and purpose by launching the Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching on December 25, 2014. Named after the esteemed founder of Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, to whom the Modi government has posthumously conferred the Bharat Ratna, this initiative reflects the government’s commitment to enhancing the quality of education and honouring the legacy of visionary educators.[iv]

Addressing the pressing need to cultivate a skilled teaching workforce, Prime Minister Modi emphasised the importance of producing proficient educators during the launch of the mission. The Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching is a comprehensive endeavour that tackles various aspects related to teaching, teacher preparation, professional development, curriculum design, assessment methodology, research in pedagogy, and the development of effective teaching strategies.

By recognising the critical role of teachers and the significance of quality education in national development, the Modi government’s initiative underscores its dedication to fostering excellence in the education sector. Through strategic measures aimed at empowering teachers and enhancing teaching methodologies, the mission aims to elevate the standards of education across the country, aligning with the government’s broader vision for educational reform and advancement.

At the heart of the Modi government’s education reforms is a vision of inclusive and equitable education for all. Initiatives such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), and the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), aim to bridge gaps in access and quality, ensuring that no child is left behind. By prioritising the education of marginalised and disadvantaged groups, the government is laying the groundwork for a more inclusive society where every individual has the opportunity to realise their full potential. The Education Minister, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, emphasised, “We believe that India’s essence is preserved within its languages, and the Modi government has taken steps to facilitate education in native tongues.” He highlighted that the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has issued a circular mandating the creation of teaching and learning materials in all 22 scheduled languages. Furthermore, he mentioned that in states like Madhya Pradesh, education in fields such as medicine and law is now being delivered in Hindi. This initiative aims to promote linguistic diversity and ensure that students have access to education in their mother tongue, fostering a deeper understanding and connection with their cultural heritage. Furthermore, the significant increase in budget allocations for primary and secondary education underscores the government’s unwavering commitment to investing in human capital development. This investment not only strengthens the education system but also fuels economic growth, innovation, and social progress, positioning India as a global leader in the knowledge economy of the 21st century.

On September 7, 2022, the Cabinet approved a new centrally sponsored scheme named PM SHRI (PM Schools for Rising India). This initiative aims to establish more than 14,500 schools across the country, focusing on strengthening select existing schools managed by various authorities such as the central government, state governments, union territory administrations, and local bodies. These PM SHRI schools are envisioned to serve as exemplars in implementing the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, which emphasises equitable, inclusive, and joyful learning environments. Over time, these schools are expected to emerge as leaders in their regions, providing high-quality education while accommodating the diverse backgrounds, multilingual needs, and varying academic abilities of students. The overarching goal is to empower students to become active participants in their own learning journey, aligning with the vision outlined in the NEP 2020.

By leveraging existing infrastructure and resources, the scheme seeks to elevate the standard of education across the country by nurturing well-rounded individuals equipped with the skills needed to thrive in the 21st century. Through the PM SHRI initiative, the government aims to address the evolving needs of the education sector and ensure that every child has access to quality education, regardless of their socio-economic background or geographical location.

In essence, the reforms in primary and secondary education under the Modi government represent a paradigm shift towards transformational change. By leveraging technology, enhancing infrastructure, empowering teachers, and promoting inclusivity, these reforms are reshaping the educational landscape of India, unlocking the potential of millions of young minds, and driving the nation towards a brighter, more prosperous future.

Analysis of Budget Allocations for the Education Sector (2014-2024)

Over the past decade, the Modi government has demonstrated a strong commitment to advancing education in India, as reflected in the significant increases in budgetary allocations for the education sector. Starting from Rs 68,728 crore in 2014, the allocation for the education sector reached its highest-ever level of Rs 1,12,898.97 crore in 2024. This notable rise in budgetary allocations reflects the government’s unwavering commitment to prioritising education as a national development agenda. The government’s budgetary decisions have been directed towards improving both the quality and accessibility of education across the country. Initiatives such as the Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), the establishment of new AIIMS, IITs, and IIMs, and the upgrade of secondary schools have aimed at enhancing the quality of higher education and expanding access to quality healthcare and education facilities.

Skill development has been a key focus area of the Modi government’s education agenda, with significant allocations towards initiatives such as the Skill India programme, the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, and the establishment of multi-skill development centres. These efforts are geared towards equipping the youth with the necessary skills to thrive in the rapidly evolving job market and contribute to India’s economic growth. The government’s budgetary allocations have also aimed at promoting inclusive education by addressing the needs of marginalised and disadvantaged groups. Initiatives such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), scholarships for SC/ST students, and the establishment of Ekalavya Model Residential Schools have been instrumental in improving access to quality education for underprivileged communities and bridging the gap in educational outcomes. Despite facing various challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and economic uncertainties, the government has maintained its commitment to education growth by increasing budgetary allocations and introducing diverse initiatives. The significant rise in allocations for education in the 2024 budget underscores the government’s determination to prioritise education as a catalyst for national development and progress.

Another transformative blueprint in education has been the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, introduced on July 29, 2020. Among its pivotal features are initiatives to ensure universal access to education from pre-primary to Grade 12, focusing on providing quality early childhood education for children aged 3-6 years. The policy advocates a new curricular and pedagogical structure of 5+3+3+4 years, aiming to break down rigid barriers between disciplines and streams. It prioritises foundational literacy and numeracy through the establishment of a National Mission, and emphasises multilingualism, promoting the use of the mother tongue or local language as the medium of instruction up to Grade 5. Assessment reforms include conducting board exams twice a year and establishing the PARAKH National Assessment Centre. NEP 2020 is committed to equitable and inclusive education, targeting socially and economically disadvantaged groups, and ensuring transparent teacher recruitment and performance evaluation processes. Infrastructure development, vocational education integration, and holistic learning approaches are other key components, with the overarching goal of achieving 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in preschool to secondary education by 2030, thereby fostering a more educated and empowered society.[v] [vi]

A significant initiative in the realm of education is the Atal Tinkering Lab (ATL) program launched by AIM (Atal Innovation Mission), NITI Aayog. This programme introduces state-of-the-art spaces, known as Atal Tinkering Labs, within schools with the objective of nurturing curiosity and innovation among students from grades 6 to 12 nationwide. Equipped with 21st-century tools and technologies such as the Internet of Things, 3D printing, rapid prototyping tools, robotics, miniaturised electronics, and do-it-yourself kits, these labs serve as platforms to stimulate problem-solving and foster an innovative mindset among students. The programme aims to not only enhance the technological skills of students but also instil in them the ability to think critically and creatively. Since its inception, AIM has successfully established 10,000 Atal Tinkering Labs in schools across the country. By providing access to cutting-edge tools and encouraging hands-on experimentation, the ATL programme empowers students to explore, experiment, and innovate, thereby preparing them to tackle real-world challenges and contribute to India’s journey towards becoming a knowledge-driven economy.[vii]

Reforms in Higher Education

The focus in higher education is on expanding access and enhancing quality. This includes the establishment of new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), resulting in an exponential rise in the number of premier institutions in the country. Additionally, the government has undertaken measures such as scrapping the M.Phil. programme and introducing four-year bachelor courses to align higher education with industry requirements.

Significant reforms have been initiated in the higher education sector, aimed at expanding access and enhancing quality. Since 2014, remarkable strides have been made in establishing and upgrading premier institutions, thereby catalysing an exponential rise in the number of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) across the country. Notably, six new IIT institutes have been established, and the Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad, has been upgraded to an IIT. The Lok Sabha passed the Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2016, facilitating the opening of seven new IITs in various states, further broadening access to quality technical education. Additionally, seven new IIMs have been established in the past six years, with six commencing their Post Graduate Programme in Management in 2015, and IIM Jammu, established in 2016, contributing to the enrichment of managerial talent across diverse regions.

In a significant development, 22 new universities have been established in the Northeast region, marking a milestone in the educational landscape of the area. Additionally, Ladakh has witnessed the establishment of its inaugural Central University, a significant step forward for the region’s higher education sector. Moreover, the establishment of the first-ever forensic university and a rail and transport university further underscores the government’s commitment to bolstering specialised education and research in crucial sectors. These initiatives aim to enhance educational opportunities, promote academic excellence, and contribute to the overall socio-economic development of the regions they serve.[viii]

The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has been a cornerstone in driving comprehensive reforms in higher education, with the overarching goal of increasing the gross enrolment ratio (GER) to 50% by 2035. The University Grants Commission (UGC), as the apex institution entrusted with formulating and executing higher education policies, has spearheaded various initiatives to align India’s education system with global standards and foster a culture of innovation and excellence. The introduction of a choice-based credit system (CBCS) provides students with the flexibility to choose courses and earn credits, promoting student-centric learning and interdisciplinary studies. Furthermore, the institution of an Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) will digitally store academic credits earned from recognised higher education institutions (HEIs), facilitating seamless credit transfer and degree awarding based on accumulated credits.

In line with NEP 2020’s vision of exposing 50% of learners to vocational education by 2025, HEIs are now mandated to offer vocational courses in all bachelor programmes. This initiative, coupled with partnerships with industry and NGOs, aims to equip students with practical skills in cutting-edge domains, thereby enhancing employability and fostering entrepreneurship. Additionally, renewed focus has been placed on open and distance learning, with the implementation of online courses and digital repositories, complementing traditional in-class methods. Furthermore, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are now eligible for credit-based recognition, providing learners with access to high-quality educational resources and expanding opportunities for lifelong learning and upskilling.

The holistic approach towards higher education reforms underscores the government’s commitment to nurturing a skilled workforce, fostering innovation, and promoting inclusive growth in alignment with the evolving needs of the 21st-century economy. By laying the groundwork for a robust higher education ecosystem, these reforms are poised to propel India towards becoming a global knowledge hub and a powerhouse of talent and innovation.

Focus on Research and Entrepreneurship

Research and innovation as key drivers of economic growth have been prioritised. The establishment of the National Research Foundation aims to promote interdisciplinary research and foster collaboration between academia and industry. Furthermore, initiatives such as the establishment of incubator centres have facilitated the creation of a conducive ecosystem for entrepreneurship and innovation in the education sector. In its 2014 manifesto, the government pledged to elevate the quality of academia and research, aiming to align Indian universities with global standards. As a result, research and innovation have emerged as central pillars driving economic growth and development. In addition, several initiatives, aimed at nurturing a vibrant research ecosystem in the country, have been implemented.

At the forefront of these efforts is the establishment of the National Research Foundation, a landmark initiative designed to promote interdisciplinary research and foster collaboration between academia and industry. This apex body will play a crucial role in directing scientific research across higher education institutions (HEIs) and public institutions, thereby cultivating a culture of innovation and creating synergistic partnerships between academia and government.

Aligning with the objectives of the National Education Policy (NEP), the University Grants Commission (UGC) is actively promoting research and innovation across disciplines, including the humanities and social sciences. Incentives are provided to HEIs to set up start-up incubation centres, technology development centres, and research facilities in frontier areas, fostering greater industry-academia linkages and driving innovation-led growth.

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman’s budget announcement further underscored the government’s commitment to research and innovation. The unveiling of a corpus of Rs. 1 lakh crore, available at minimal or nil interest rates, aims to incentivise private sector investment in research and development, particularly in the sunrise sectors. This significant allocation reflects the government’s vision of harnessing the potential of India’s tech-savvy youth and fostering innovation-driven entrepreneurship.

Furthermore, the scheme to strengthen deep-tech technologies for defence purposes aligns with the government’s broader agenda of promoting self-reliance and indigenous innovation in critical sectors. This initiative not only reinforces India’s defence capabilities but also paves the way for technological breakthroughs with far-reaching implications for national security and strategic autonomy. The impact of these initiatives is already evident, with the emergence of a thriving startup ecosystem across regions. In Jammu & Kashmir, for instance, the conducive environment created by government policies has led to a surge in startup registrations, with the region securing top positions in the ‘Ranking of States on Support to Startup Ecosystems.’ Startups in diverse sectors such as e-commerce, horticulture, agriculture, tourism, and crafts have flourished, signalling the transformative potential of government-led interventions in fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. The unwavering focus on research and innovation aims to leverage India’s demographic dividend and technological prowess to drive inclusive growth and prosperity and to propel India towards becoming a global leader in innovation and knowledge-driven economies.

Revitalising the Indian Knowledge System

In a bid to preserve and promote India’s rich cultural heritage, the Modi government has taken steps to revitalise the Indian knowledge system. Efforts have been made to integrate traditional knowledge systems into mainstream education, ensuring that students gain a holistic understanding of India’s diverse cultural heritage. The Indian Knowledge System (IKS) cell, established in October 2020 under the Ministry of Education (MoE) at AICTE, New Delhi, represents a concerted effort by the Modi government to preserve, promote, and integrate India’s rich cultural heritage and traditional knowledge systems into the contemporary education framework. This innovative initiative seeks to foster interdisciplinary research, preserve and disseminate traditional knowledge, and actively engage in spreading India’s diverse heritage across various domains such as arts and literature, agriculture, basic sciences, engineering, technology, architecture, management, and economics.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been a vocal advocate for an education system rooted in Indian values, emphasising the importance of embracing India’s cultural legacy in shaping the country’s educational landscape. In commemorating the 200th birth anniversary of Arya Samaj founder Swami Dayanand Saraswati, PM Modi underscored the need for a return to India’s ancient wisdom embodied in the Vedas, highlighting the role of figures like Swami Dayanand in liberating Indian society from the shackles of superstition and colonial influence.

The launch of the textbook ‘Introduction to Indian Knowledge Systems: Concepts and Applications’ by Union Minister of Education and Skill Development, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, further exemplifies the government’s commitment to decolonizing the Indian education system and revitalising indigenous knowledge systems. Emphasising the importance of integrating insights from India’s ancient past with contemporary challenges, Education Minister Pradhan highlighted the role of IKS in offering solutions to global issues. By fostering a dialogue between traditional wisdom and modern knowledge, the government aims to create synergy that addresses the complex socio-economic and environmental challenges of the 21st century.

Moreover, the New Education Policy (NEP) has provided a comprehensive roadmap for incorporating IKS into the higher education curriculum, signalling a paradigm shift towards a more inclusive and holistic approach to education. By recognising the significance of India’s indigenous knowledge systems, the NEP seeks to equip students with a deeper understanding of their cultural heritage while fostering critical thinking and innovation. This holistic integration of traditional wisdom with contemporary education is poised to enrich the learning experience and empower future generations to tackle the challenges of a rapidly changing world. The Modi government’s efforts to revitalise the Indian knowledge system reflect a broader commitment to preserving and promoting India’s cultural heritage and traditional wisdom. By embracing indigenous knowledge systems and integrating them into the education framework, the government is laying the foundation for a more inclusive, resilient, and culturally rooted society that draws strength from its rich legacy.

Skill Development Initiatives

Recognising the pivotal role of skill development in fostering economic growth and creating employment opportunities, the Modi government has spearheaded a series of initiatives aimed at empowering youth with relevant skills and enhancing their employability in a rapidly evolving job market. This commitment is underscored by the establishment of a dedicated Ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, signalling the government’s prioritisation of this critical area.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been actively involved in promoting skill development, as evidenced by his address at the convocation ceremony of the second ‘Kaushal Deekshant Samaroh,’ organised by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. The establishment of Skill India Centres represents a strategic move towards aligning with the evolving needs of various industries, particularly in sectors like media, tourism, hospitality, and IT-ITeS, by providing practical knowledge and training to aspiring professionals.

The launch of over 500 skill development centres across 34 rural districts of Maharashtra by Prime Minister Narendra Modi further underscores the government’s commitment to preparing youth in rural areas for employment opportunities. This initiative, known as the Pramod Mahajan Grameen Kaushalya Vikas Kendras, aims to bridge the skill gap and empower rural youth with the necessary competencies to succeed in the job market.

The Skill India Mission, launched in 2015, has been a cornerstone of the government’s efforts to address the skill gap through short-term and long-term training programs spanning nearly 40 sectors. These courses are meticulously designed to equip individuals with practical skills aligned with industry standards, thereby enhancing their employability and reducing the need for additional training by employers.

Under the umbrella of the Skill India Mission, flagship schemes such as the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) have played a pivotal role in imparting short-term skill development training and certification to youth across various sectors, including rural areas. With innovative components like short-term training and recognition of prior learning, PMKVY has established skill development infrastructure through PM Kaushal Kendras and, by October 2023, had trained over 1.40 crore candidates. The Craftsmen Training Scheme, operating through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs), has witnessed substantial expansion, with over 5000 new ITIs established in the past nine years, offering skill training across various economic sectors.

Furthermore, the National Education Policy 2020 emphasises the integration of vocational education with academic education, promoting interdisciplinary learning and industry-academia linkages. The government’s focus on apprenticeship programmes under the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme bridges the gap between theoretical education and practical skills, fostering a skilled workforce aligned with industry requirements.

To nurture entrepreneurial aspirations, the government launched initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Yuva Yojana and Startup India, aimed at supporting early-stage entrepreneurs and fostering a conducive ecosystem for innovative ventures. Additionally, the establishment of National Skill Development Corporation International and Skill India International Centres reflects the government’s commitment to enhancing the global mobility of skilled workers and meeting international standards.

The government’s holistic approach to skill development is evident in its collaboration with over 20 central ministries to implement various skilling and upskilling programmes, ensuring comprehensive coverage across diverse sectors and regions. The recent launch of Skill India Digital further demonstrates the government’s embrace of digital technology to streamline skilling initiatives and facilitate talent acquisition.

The government’s relentless efforts in the field of skill development underscore its commitment to fostering a skilled, empowered, and entrepreneurial workforce capable of driving India’s economic growth and competitiveness in the global arena. Through a combination of policy interventions, vocational training programmes, and entrepreneurial support schemes, the government is laying the groundwork for a future-ready India, where every individual has the opportunity to realise their full potential.

Comparative Analysis 

A comparative analysis of key indicators from 2014 to 2023 reveals the significant progress made by the Modi government in the education and skill development sectors. This includes an increase in enrolment rates, the expansion of educational infrastructure, and a rise in research output and innovation. Over the period from 2014 to 2023, the education and skill development sectors in India have witnessed notable advancements under the leadership of the Modi government.

First, enrolment rates across different levels of education have seen a considerable improvement during this period. The government’s emphasis on initiatives like the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and the Right to Education Act has contributed to enhancing access to primary and secondary education, resulting in higher enrolment rates among children. Moreover, efforts to promote higher education through schemes like the Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) have led to an increase in the number of students pursuing tertiary education in colleges and universities across the country.

Second, there has been a significant expansion of educational infrastructure under the Modi government. The establishment of new schools, colleges, and universities, along with the upgrading of existing institutions, has helped cater to the growing demand for quality education. Initiatives like the setting up of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) have not only increased access to premier educational institutions but have also enhanced the overall quality of higher education in India.

Furthermore, the focus on research and innovation has led to a notable rise in research output and technological advancements during the period under review. The establishment of the National Research Foundation and the promotion of interdisciplinary research have facilitated collaboration between academia, industry, and government agencies, resulting in groundbreaking discoveries and innovations across various fields. Additionally, initiatives like the Atal Innovation Mission and the establishment of incubation centres have nurtured a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation, fostering the growth of startups and technology-driven enterprises in the country.

In conclusion, the comparative analysis underscores the transformative impact of the Modi government’s policies and initiatives in the education and skill development sectors. From improving enrolment rates and expanding educational infrastructure to fostering research and innovation, the government’s efforts have propelled India towards becoming a knowledge-based economy and a global hub for talent and innovation. However, challenges remain, and continued focus and investment will be crucial in sustaining and building upon the progress achieved so far.


The Modi government’s reforms in the education and skill development sectors have ushered in a new era of growth and opportunity for India. The reforms have not only revolutionised the teaching-learning process but also foregrounded outcomes and direction in the education section. By prioritising quality, accessibility, and relevance, these reforms have laid the foundation for a knowledge-driven economy that is poised to meet the challenges of the 21st century. However, challenges remain, and continued investment and innovation will be crucial to sustaining the momentum of progress in the years to come.


Author Brief Bio: Dr. Swadesh Singh holds PhD from JNU, New Delhi, and teaches Political Science at University of Delhi.











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